In 2011, the American professional cyclist David Zabriskie (Garmin group – overalls), that this year is going to compete in the Tour de France just a purely vegan diet. There is no doubt that he has challenged hard, when the average day of the Tour, the cyclist to return to his body about 8000 calories, lots of meat, to complete the protein losses of the day.
Each and every one must have recently been exposed or another video on YouTube, which encourages the movement of vegetarian or vegan diet. Some of us move on and continue as normal, some are beginning to question eating meat or animal products at all, and some people are persuaded, and inscribe on their banner vegetarian or vegan diet. If once to encounter in man a vegetarian was a rare sight, surely today come to me quite a few people vegetarians, vegans or other combinations (coachee or did not).
What is the difference between vegetarianism veganism at all?
The population of vegetarians avoid eating meat in all its forms (beef, chicken, fish, turkey, etc.). Vegan add also that avoiding feeding of all animal foods (not just meat and fish), ie, with eggs, and dairy products. Most of us it may seem as if there was nothing left to eat if you avoid all of these, but you just have to know some new foods.
There is no goal in this column, “to preach” to eating products of animal or not, since In my humble opinion it comes in approaches various trophic. Whether I agree with this view or not, for a professional to examine the diet of the person in front of him, and make sure that does not suffer nutritional deficiencies that may impair health.
As stated, when addressing me practicing vegan, my main objective is to make sure that despite the abstention from specific food, nutritional deficiencies will not, exhaustion and sports injuries. In fact, this is the goal in any nutrition counseling for athletes who are exposed to nutritional deficiencies than the general population (especially without iron, B12, calcium and protein). The problem was that the nutritional deficiencies of these costs, the more so when it comes to veganism or vegetarianism. I see in real attempt to overcome the missing, but not always with success.
Is one common missing protein. A person who practices should consume 1.2 to 2 g of protein per kg of body weight (depending on the intensity and frequency of training). Example, the parable of 70 kg person should eat 84-140 g of protein per day. Animal proteins contain the amino acids (building blocks of protein) essential for protein synthesis, and therefore are considered high quality proteins or “full.” People need regular diet will not hesitate especially to the conventional recommendations, as protein sources available and familiar to us are meat and dairy products, fish, eggs and dairy products.
Of course, when avoiding all these – we must find a way to fill the gaps, and of quality.
Plant sources such as beans, seeds and nuts definitely contain protein, but are considered less reliable amino acids for protein synthesis, and therefore are called “incomplete proteins.” However, when consuming the right combination of protein sources from plants, you can certainly get adequate protein quantity and quality.
Good way to get high-quality complete protein, is to combine grain legumes. All of these groups subtracts another essential amino acid, but the combination of the two groups also brings us to receive high-quality complete protein as animal protein! Majadra is a great solution (Rice is a grain and lentils are legumes), bread with homemade hummus and many dishes that combine the two groups. It is important to say that the combination should occur on the same day, but not necessarily in the same meal.
If so, the protein can be especially legumes (dried peas cup, chickpeas, white beans, lentils or Paul will contain about 15 g of protein) and soy milk drinks (250 ml of beverage contain 3% fat 7 g protein), tofu (100 g tofu 16 g of protein) or seitan (gluten protein. 100 g has about 30 g of protein).
Luckily, legumes and iron-rich B vitamins (except B12), so a vegan or vegetarian meals combine beans during the day – would benefit all sides: extra protein, iron and B vitamins
Iron and zinc
Iron and zinc may also be deficient vegetarian or vegan diet. These minerals are essential for carrying oxygen, energy production, immune system, normal function of the brain and nervous system. The problem with iron and zinc from plant foods (especially greens) is that there are components in plants that bind to the zinc and iron, so that only a small part of iron and zinc in our bodies actually absorbed. The decline in the availability of iron and zinc so strong as vegetarian or vegan should consume 2 times the amount of iron of the recommendations accepted.
Cooking techniques such as sowing legumes, increase the absorption of zinc and iron in the body, and therefore recommended.
Another technique to increase the absorption of iron and zinc from plants is to consume them together with vitamin C (peppers, tomatoes, citrus fruits, strawberries), while avoid could not consume them along with coffee or tea drinks containing oxalate and tannins that impede the absorption.
Calcium and vitamin D
As for calcium and vitamin D, there is no doubt that when you download the dairy in our daily diet, we also reduce a major source of their readily available. Lack of calcium and vitamin D may impair bone density, result in sports injuries (stress fractures mostly) or delay healing fractures and injuries. As mentioned, the main concern is to make sure that the person will be deprived of the accepted recommendations of the recommended calcium intake.
Calcium intake recommendations vary with age, and over 18 are range from 1000 mg to 1200 mg per day.
Such as iron and zinc, calcium from plants also less well absorbed in the body due to the plant components that bind tightly to calcium and prevent it from effectively absorbed in the body.
Good sources of calcium from plants are: Full sesame tahini (tablespoon contains 200 mg of calcium, 100 calories), cabbage – for (Kyle) and broccoli (broccoli cup contains 80 mg of calcium), natural almonds (10 almonds contain about 40 mg of calcium and 90 calories), and of course calcium-fortified tofu products, usually also enriched with Vitamin D.
Because vitamin B12 comes from animal entirely, we can not get it vegetarian or vegan diet. Vitamin B12 deficiency may lead to concentration problems, weakness and fatigue, tingling feeling sometimes, dizziness, memory problems and more. Another problem is a vegetarian and vegan diet usually contains large amounts of folic acid, which can screen the missing vitamin B12 levels.
The only thing to do is to be followed up in blood tests for the vitamin levels in order to dwindling reserves in time.
Do not forget, as always, that blood testing is recommended every six months, especially iron (iron, ferritin, Trnsfrin, blood count) and vitamin B12, and vitamin D to diagnose nutritional deficiencies. If you find a nutritional deficiency, have to consider nutritional supplements along with a professional. Diagnostic testing calcium deficiency is more problematic, since that requires a DEXA bone density test, which is not available to the general population.
If you consider that fail to eat enough calcium-rich foods, dietary supplements may be needed in appropriate amounts (if do not like grinding, for example, missing a great source of calcium).
It is important to say that if there is a risk to your daily diet is not sufficient, it is recommended to consult a professional about taking a multivitamin suited to vegetarianism. Please note that sometimes there is a tendency to take some supplements along with a multivitamin, but you should stop here and see if duplicates are not taking supplements for nothing, or take supplements that interfere with the absorption of the other one.
With an increase in vegetarian and vegan recent years, there is no doubt that even the professionals from clinical nutrition should make the necessary adjustments to such populations. Vegetarians and vegans can definitely make the health benefits of such a diet, get accepted recommendations of the vitamins and minerals mentioned in the article, not only for general health, but also to maximize sports performance. Vegans can get adequate amounts of appropriate amino acids, and increase muscle mass with strength training, provided to take care of the correct combinations.
Also, vegetarian and vegan diet can provide the iron needed to improve fitness levels combined with cardio training. All this can occur, provided there is good planning and careful, ensuring the correct combinations and not missing any component of food! And if you mess up, you should always consult with a professional to build you a customized program needs and goals without you hurting your health and athletic performance.